Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Know how this gynaecological condition affects fertility

Awareness about Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is important. A doctor tells you about its impact, symptoms, risk factors and treatment of PID, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis, fertility, healthshots
pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease can be diagnosed and treated. Image courtesy: Shutterstock
Team Health Shots Updated: 19 Sep 2022, 12:06 pm IST
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, usually known as PID, is a common and poorly managed gynecological condition affecting adolescent and young adult women.

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), acute PID is attributed to the ascent of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the endometrium, fallopian tubes and contiguous structures.

Primary PID is the ascend of organisms into uterus and fallopian tubes through cervix.

“As an infertility expert, my aim is to identify the people at risk and treat them adequately in order to avoid ectopic pregnancies and infertility. Also, to identity people at risk of tubal factor infertility and treat them to achieve a pregnancy,” says Arockia Virgin Fernando, Fertility Specialist, Gynaecologist, Fertility and IVF consultant, Cloudnine Group of Hospitals, Bengaluru (HRBR).

More than 30 percent of women approaching IVF clinics have tubal factor infertility due to previous PID, as per the expert. She suggests approaching the doctor at the right time is the essential thing to tackle this disease.

Let us know some important aspects of PID.

PID and infertlity
Infertility may be a result of pelvic inflammatory disease. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Impact of pelvic inflammatory disease

1. Sterile chronic inflammatory adhesions are common residual reaction, which affects the function of the fallopian tube, leading to infertility and high risk of ectopic pregnancy as the fallopian tubes fails to push the embryo back into the uterus.

2. Around 25 percent of women with one episode of PID can have a repeat one.

3. Chronic pelvic pain, painful periods and painful intercourse are encountered by few women.

Risk factors leading to pelvic inflammatory disease

* Sexual activity
* Young age
* Intra-uterine contraceptive device
* Previous history of PID
* Uterine Instrumentation for any procedure
* Spontaneous PID is mostly in women who are sexually active.
* Most common organisms causing the infections are gonorrhoea and chlamydia. The diagnosis can be made only by a high index of suspicion; lab tests are not very confirmatory.

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abdominal pain
Abdominal pain is an indicator. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Common clinical symptoms of PID

* Lower abdominal pain
* Copious greenish and frothy vaginal discharge with or without discharge.
* Recurrent Urinary infections
* Very few women present with severe symptoms.
* Subclinical PID also can cause problems later on.

Diagnosis for PID

* Endometrial biopsy
* Cervical and vaginal culture
* Laparoscopy
* Ultrasound pelvis
* Urine culture

Treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease

* At least three courses of antibiotics
* Treating both the partners.
* Untreated men with urethral gonorrhoea infections are important source of infection.
* The main goal of therapy is to prevent infertility and ectopic pregnancy.


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