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The ultimate guide to the 40-day postpartum confinement period for new mothers

Published on:28 October 2020, 17:33pm IST
Since time immemorial, new mothers have been asked to maintain a 40-day confinement period. Is it worth it or not? Let’s find out.
Dr Farah Adam Mukadam
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Here’s why a 40-day postpartum confinement makes sense. Image courtesy: Pexels

The first six weeks are a critical period for a new mother’s recovery, and she is confined to her room through its duration. In Chinese culture, it is called sitting the month, and in Urdu it is known as chhilla. Some states also call it Japa

All my patients have complained about this confinement period. After the first two weeks of sitting holed up in one room, a woman starts to lose her mind. There is a baby sucking at her breast pretty much 24×7, the milk and sweat makes her sticky, she is perpetually oily, her food is bland, and she hasn’t felt fresh air on her body in weeks. 

I, for one, was dying to step out of the security prison that my home had become post the delivery of my baby. In fact, the 40-day sabbatical is so extreme in some cases that there was a woman who wasn’t even allowed to talk to her husband. She was literally sentenced to solitary confinement by her mother-in-law. Years later, when her friend had delivered, instead of congratulating her on the new baby, she ended up sobbing and recalling how tormented she was during that time. 

There are plenty of parenting websites and blogs that suggest you can take a stroll in the park two weeks after delivery to get some fresh air.

New moms are often reluctant to comply with this advice because the explanations given by the nanis and dadis for the sabbatical are quite creative and not so scientific. They say things like you’ll get affected by the evil eye (nazar lagna) or cold air will enter your bones (haddiyon main hawa utarna). 

For want of logic in their justification, let’s not discredit their suggestion just yet. Similar advice, and might I add reasoning, is seen in every other culture that has been around for more than 1000 years (such as the Mediterranean, Chinese and Latin). And as for the Americans, they have a heritage that is barely 300 years old. So, who do we listen to?

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And there are reasons backed by science

Our body’s immunity is much lower in pregnancy. We are more prone to colds, and need more rest to get better. It is because the developing foetus is a foreign body, and the immune system has to mount a reaction against it to eliminate it. However, this is our little baby and the body knows it must preserve it. So, while the embryo is getting implanted, there are changes in the uterus which allow the pregnancy to progress unharmed by the body’s immune attack. 

Your immunity is, in fact, lowered to favour the accommodation and development of the foetus. This state of lower immunity continues after delivery too. The process of birthing and shrinking of the uterus causes more stress to the body and a woman takes anywhere from three months to a year to completely get back to her pre-pregnancy immune levels.

One of my friends told me that she used to go to work daily, and was thriving during her pregnancy. Apart from the occasional cold and heartburn, she never had any issue. She was confused about the hype around low immunity after delivery, and wondered why she couldn’t go out like she did while she was carrying. I am glad she asked.

After the birth of the child, the body works overtime to repair and restore the body’s normalcy. Some women’s bodies take the slow and steady path to recovery. While in others, the immune system which was suppressed during pregnancy takes a sharp U-turn bringing the body at the crossroads of suppressed immunity of pregnancy, and the normal immunity of the non-pregnant state. This is known as the immune reactivation syndrome. Each woman’s body gets back on track differently, and you could be anywhere between the two extremes.

As part of this syndrome, the immunity follows a rather drastic recovery course and goes into an overdrive. In order to protect your body’s reactivity from going into a frenzy when it comes in contact with every virus and bacteria, it is strongly advised that you sit it out in your room and be looked after. 

Taking a walk in the park daily is out of question. Maybe a short visit to the hospital for a check-up is okay. I hope that in the coming years, this important aspect of maternal care will come into the limelight and new mothers will get home visits rather than be asked to come to the hospital.

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Different women, different experiences

In my experience as a family physician, I have seen women not follow the confinement period and complain about recurring colds and knee pain, even after their kids start going to school. Why is the cold virus so persistently affecting them and why are their knees always paining? Most doctors tell them it’s because they don’t have enough vitamin D and the calcium levels are low. 

I have seen plenty of male patients working in IT firms who never step out in the sun and have very low vitamin D levels. Yet, their knees are not crying for help! In fact, most of us urban people are calcium and vitamin D deficient. That seems to be the new normal. 

One of my patients complained about how she has never felt well again after delivery. This woman was at the peak of her health in her pregnancy. She glowed, she worked, and she multi-tasked. Yet, delivering the baby seemed to have knocked the wind out of her sails. 

postpartum care
Maintain your diet post pregnancy. Image courtesy: Unsplash

She felt that she never fully recovered from child birth even after her daughter’s second birthday. If this woman was so functional in her low immunity state during pregnancy, why was she so deflated after her child was born? Yup, you guessed it. She went out every other day and did not stay at home protected.

Women who have not observed postpartum confinement did not see any medical reason in parenting books and websites to support the practice. They thought that it was an unnecessary restriction passed down through generations. 

Maybe a by-product of restrictive patriarchy, they reasoned. There was no scientific reason behind ‘bones catching a cold’, yet they complained of pain in their bones.

So, what is actually happening in the female body with immune reactivation syndrome? When the woman’s immune system is reversing, her circulation is flooded with a different kind of white blood cells. The profile of the immune hormones produced by these cells also changes rather drastically.

And here’s why it makes sense

Keeping a woman with lowered immunity in the familiar confines of home for a mandatory forty days makes a lot of sense. It’s like your body is turned inside out and anything and everything coming in contact with it has the potential to spark an exaggerated response. 

Innocuous viruses you would encounter in the outside world which wouldn’t even cause a sneeze have the capacity to sow the seeds of future reactivity to their harmful effects. The disease could manifest years later as an autoimmune disease. It is not always certain what triggers the initial immune attack in autoimmunity, but it is very clear that both the environment and genes play a role. 

Every disease is multifactorial. The protection of a new mother in the first forty days could be one of the steps towards preventing something as ignored as vague joint pains or perhaps even a full-fledged autoimmune disease in the future. And as for the mothers who did step out during their confinement, please don’t go into a frenzy saying you are doomed. We are mothers. We are way more resilient than we are given credit for.

Dr Farah Adam Mukadam Dr Farah Adam Mukadam

Dr Farah Adam Mukadam is the author of the book ‘Newborns and New Moms’. A Family Physician by profession and a mother of two, she has written this book as a guide for the urban Indian woman to help her be mentally prepared for life after childbirth and validates our time-honoured traditions of new mother and baby care in the light of science.